Doble steam car In Abner Doble developed an electro-mechanical system that reacted simultaneously to steam temperature and pressure, starting and stopping the feed pumps whilst igniting and cutting out the burner according to boiler pressure. This type of boiler was continuously developed in the US, Britain and Germany throughout the s and into the s for use in carsbusestrucksrailcarsshunting locomotives US; switchersa speedboat and ina converted Travel Air biplane. Steam could be raised much more quickly than with a conventional locomotive boiler. Holcroft and Anderson[ edit ] Trials of the Anderson condensing system on the Southern Railway Great Britain took place between and
A broken chain link illustrating poorly managed business' value chain. Definition Value chain analysis VCA is a process where a firm identifies its primary and support activities that add value to its final product and then analyze these activities to reduce costs or increase differentiation.
Value chain represents the internal activities a firm engages in when transforming inputs into outputs. Understanding the tool Value chain analysis is a strategy tool used to analyze internal firm activities.
Its goal is to recognize, which activities are the most valuable i. The firm that competes through differentiation advantage will try to perform its activities better than competitors would do. If it competes through cost advantage, it will try to perform internal activities at lower costs than competitors would do.
When a company is capable of producing goods at lower costs than the market price or to provide superior products, it earns profits.
Porter introduced the generic value chain model in Value chain represents all the internal activities a firm engages in to produce goods and services. VC is formed of primary activities that add value to the final product directly and support activities that add value indirectly.
Although, primary activities add value directly to the production process, they are not necessarily more important than support activities.
Nowadays, competitive advantage mainly derives from technological improvements or innovations in business models or processes. On the other hand, primary activities are usually the source of cost advantage, where costs can be easily identified for each activity and properly managed.
The more activities a company undertakes compared to industry's VC, the more vertically integrated it is.
Below you can find an industry's value chain and its relation to a firm level VC. Using the tool There are two different approaches on how to perform the analysis, which depend on what type of competitive advantage a company wants to create cost or differentiation advantage.
The table below lists all the steps needed to achieve cost or differentiation advantage using VCA. Competitive advantage types Cost advantage Differentiation advantage This approach is used when organizations try to compete on costs and want to understand the sources of their cost advantage or disadvantage and what factors drive those costs.
Establish the relative importance of each activity in the total cost of the product.
Identify cost drivers for each activity. Identify links between activities. Identify opportunities for reducing costs. Evaluate the differentiation strategies for improving customer value. Identify the best sustainable differentiation. Cost advantage To gain cost advantage a firm has to go through 5 analysis steps: All the activities from receiving and storing materials to marketing, selling and after sales support that are undertaken to produce goods or services have to be clearly identified and separated from each other.
The managers who identify value chain activities have to look into how work is done to deliver customer value. The total costs of producing a product or service must be broken down and assigned to each activity.
Activity based costing is used to calculate costs for each process. Activities that are the major sources of cost or done inefficiently when benchmarked against competitors must be addressed first.
Only by understanding what factors drive the costs, managers can focus on improving them. Costs for labor-intensive activities will be driven by work hours, work speed, wage rate, etc. Different activities will have different cost drivers.
Reduction of costs in one activity may lead to further cost reductions in subsequent activities. For example, fewer components in the product design may lead to less faulty parts and lower service costs.
Therefore identifying the links between activities will lead to better understanding how cost improvements would affect he whole value chain. Sometimes, cost reductions in one activity lead to higher costs for other activities.
When the company knows its inefficient activities and cost drivers, it can plan on how to improve them. Too high wage rates can be dealt with by increasing production speed, outsourcing jobs to low wage countries or installing more automated processes.
Differentiation advantage VCA is done differently when a firm competes on differentiation rather than costs. This is because the source of differentiation advantage comes from creating superior products, adding more features and satisfying varying customer needs, which results in higher cost structure.
After identifying all value chain activities, managers have to focus on those activities that contribute the most to creating customer value. Managers can use the following strategies to increase product differentiation and customer value: Add more product features; Focus on customer service and responsiveness; Increase customization; Offer complementary products.Jul 11, · In , Charles Brady King drove the first automobile in the city of Detroit.
His route included Woodward Avenue, a main thoroughfare for the city then as now. What portions of Woodward weren’t constructed of planks infilled with sand were more or Author: Daniel Strohl.
Consumption and the Consumer Society The average U.S. resident, in a year, consumes pounds of meat, uses pounds of paper, and uses energy equivalent to metric tons of oil.
features in all new automobile owing to change in customer’s taste for automobile and status symbols attached to car ownership. All these systems require maintenance and repairs.
It would require a sales person to make the customer's decisions for him or her, for the customer's own good. Ebejer and Morden also discus an ethical for standard . A. What features in modern automobile are customer driven?
B. Henry Ford once said something to the effect that the customer can. have any color Model T he wants as long as its black. How did the. world evolve from (HF) his attitude towards customer to the modern. attitude of customer driven quality? C. The features in the modern automobile that are customer driven are the entire automobile.
Automobiles were first created for customers to buy and therefore the creation and production of the automobile was customer driven and still is today/5(4).