Case for diagnosis between psychogenic depression and the post-encephalitic syndrome.
Numbering perhaps twenty thousand at its peak in the early s, the majority of the Bene Israel have since left their homeland—most going to Israel—so that only about five thousand remain in India.
By the end of the last century there were over fifty thousand individuals of Bene Israel origin in Israel, with the community there extending into the fourth generation. Never having experienced antisemitism in India, Bene Israel the world over have fond memories of and a deep attachment to their native land.
In India, the women were the producers and preservers of Bene Israel culture which, except for the observance of Jewish practices, rituals, festivals and dietary laws, was similar to that of their Hindu, Muslim, and Christian neighbors. Widow remarriage was rare until the mid-twentieth century and divorce rates were and are low compared to those of western countries, although they have risen among Bene Israel in Israel.
Polygyny, practiced occasionally but never truly accepted by the community in the nineteenth century and early twentieth, has virtually disappeared.
Bene Israel women, with their strong religious beliefs, were considered to have the power to hold the family together. A number of them were very influential, playing important roles not only in their extended families but also in the villages, helping people in need from all communities and settling disputes.
Although lower class women in the nineteenth and early twentieth century often left school early, and some families feared that a highly educated girl would have difficulty finding a husband, many girls from middle and upper-middle class families were educated, from the late nineteenth century on, at Huzurpaga High School for Indian Girls, a famous boarding school in Pune where Marathi was the language of instruction.
By the mid-twentieth century, most girls from these families, like those from the Hindu upper castes, switched to English-language schools, which their brothers had been attending earlier.
After completing university in India, especially talented Bene Israel women, like their male counterparts, continued their education in England. The Bene Israel of Maharashtra in western India was the largest of the three Jewish communities of India, numbering about twenty thousand at its peak in the early s, though the majority have since emigrated to Israel.
From the late nineteenth century onwards, Bene Israel girls from middle and upper-middle class families were well-educated, many attending university in India and then going on to England for further studies.
Educator Rebecca Reuben became the first woman to rank first in the matriculation examination for Bombay University and then went on to study at the University of London and Cambridge University. She later became principal of the Bene Israel school in Bombay. Reuben [Rebecca Reuben, ed.
Woman baking bread in Bombay. Sanskrit scholar Esther Solomon, Amhedehad, India. Jerusha Jhirad, distribute presents to needy children at a Hannukah party in Bombay. Women at a Melida ceremony, an offering to Elijah the Prophet. Bride and groom and family, after their wedding ceremony at the Magen Hassidim Synagogue in Bombay.
Bene Israel were among the first women to enter the nursing and teaching fields and had a particularly strong impact in Bombay in the latter arena. Later, a number of Bene Israel women worked in government service and others became physicians and lawyers.
In Israel, they have gone into science, medicine, law, psychology, education, social work, business, clerical work and hairdressing, and other fields. Although they preferred not to marry out of the community, Bene Israel women sometimes did—and still do—especially if a highly educated woman could not find a suitable mate within the community.
They also had the option of remaining single and supporting themselves through their own careers before this became acceptable for middle-class Hindu women. There are still efforts to arrange marriages, or at least to introduce young people, both in India and Israel.
Although they normally wear western clothes, they will don saris or other Indian-style dress for weddings, henna ceremonies, and other events. Although there are many individual Bene Israel women who have made important contributions to their community and country, the achievements of only a few, from India and Israel, can be singled out.
Space prohibits the inclusion of Bene Israel women who have settled in the west. Jerusha Jhirad —the first female Indian Jewish physician, was a distinguished gynecologist in Bombay. She was the first woman to be awarded the Government of India scholarship to study in the United Kingdom, where she earned an M.
She expanded and improved the Cama and Albless Hospitals for Women and Children in Bombay during her tenure as their Superintendent from to l and served as president of the Gynaecological and Obstetrics Society. For these achievements and her efforts to improve medical education in India and advance the cause of woman doctors, she was awarded the MBE Member of the British Empire Civil by the British and, in l, the coveted title Padma Shri by the government of India.
It also offered classes in Marathi the local languagecooking, needlework and dressmaking to girls who had not completed their education, and promoted the study of Bible and religion. As such, it attracted the upper middle class of Bene Israel.
Jhirad wrote a short autobiography. Rebecca Reuben —a well-known educator, was a revered figure in the community whose activities in many spheres enriched the lives of the Bene Israel. InReuben, who came from a highly educated family, became the first woman to rank first in the matriculation examination for Bombay University, where she specialized in history and Hebrew.
She went on to earn a teaching diploma from the University of London and continued studying Hebrew with Dr. Israel Abrahams at Cambridge University.The lead section of this article may need to be rewritten.
Please discuss this issue on the article's talk schwenkreis.com the lead layout guide to ensure the section follows Wikipedia's norms and to be inclusive of all essential details.
(July ) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Spokeo searches thousands of sources across 12 billion public records to look up the most recent owner of that number, whether it’s a landline or cell phone number, the location, and even the carrier if available.
A selection of recent stories about the San Francisco State University community that have appeared in the media. Note: These summaries link directly to pages published by the media outlets cited.
Readbag users suggest that ganb__pdf is worth reading. The file contains page(s) and is free to view, download or print. Port Manteaux churns out silly new words when you feed it an idea or two. Enter a word (or two) above and you'll get back a bunch of portmanteaux created by jamming together words that are conceptually related to your inputs..
For example, enter "giraffe" and you'll get . The original tradition, as related to Christian missionaries early in the 19 th century, is that the Bene Israel are the descendants of the survivors (seven men and seven women) of a shipwreck off the Konkan coast at Navgaon, about 26 miles south of Mumbai.