Citizenship and the european union essay

EU insiders have given a chilly reception to the idea that Britons might enjoy associate citizenship after leaving the EU, following a claim from a leading MEP that it would feature in Brexit negotiations. However, it is very unlikely to happen. Introducing citizenship rights for a non-EU country would require changing European treaties, an arduous legal task no member state wishes to undertake. Maybe it can be discussed 10 years from now if member states want to change the treaty.

Citizenship and the european union essay

Previous Next Title 3. The architecture of European Union citizenship While the four dynamics expand the range of citizenship beyond traditional conceptions of territorial sovereignty and nationhood, none of them questions the existence of separate states which consider citizenship as a status of full membership in their political communities.

Citizenship and the european union essay

I characterize these developments therefore as transnational rather than postnational. It might seem that the foremost example of postnational citizenship in the contemporary world is the common citizenship of the European Union as defined in Article 8 of the Maastricht Treaty.

However, in my view, this truly novel form of citizenship remains severely underdeveloped and caught in a national framework which constrains its dynamic potential. I will argue that this critique applies to three aspects of Union citizenship: The rights of Union citizenship are those of free movement and residence [12] within the Union article 8aof diplomatic protection outside the Union provided by any other member state article 8cand rights of political participation: Apart from the franchise for the Parliament, these rights amount to a watered-down version of external citizenship diplomatic protection in a third country and free entry for Union citizens coming from there and of denizenship free movement and residence within the Union and the local franchise.

The most important limitation is that Union citizenship becomes relevant only once a person lives in another member state of the Union or in a third country. The irony in the construction of Union citizenship is that, on the one hand, its list of rights is primarily relevant for migrants and - again apart from the parliamentary franchise - largely resembles the elements of enhanced denizenship many member states had introduced before for their settled immigrants, but, on the other hand, its definition of the Citizenship and the european union essay to whom these rights apply excludes third country aliens, i.

According to article 8 "[e]very person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union" and "[c]itizens of the Union shall enjoy the rights conferred by this Treaty and shall be subject to the duties imposed thereby. This makes access to the citizenship of the Union wholly dependent on the rules for acquisition, transmission and loss of its various national citizenships.

With regard to these rules the Union has neither defined minimum standards nor attempted to harmonize them. The principle of free determination of nationality by each state has been left unconstrained.

This is a highly paradoxical position to take. How can fifteen different procedures of admission lead to a single and common status of membership? The answer refers back to the present limitations of the content of Union citizenship. As long as the rights it confers add little to what people living in their countries of birth already enjoy by virtue of their national citizenship there will be little pressure for common standards of admission to national citizenship and thereby also to that of the Union.

Passports of the European Union - Wikipedia Same country[ edit ] Some EU countries, such as Germany, Ireland, Malta and the UK, allow their citizens to have several passports at once to circumvent certain travel restrictions. It can also be needed to circumvent the fact that visitors whose passports show evidence of a visit to Israel are not allowed to enter Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, Libya, Saudi Arabia, the Sudan, Syria and Yemen It is, however, possible to get the Israeli entry and exit stamp on a separate piece of paper.

In this sense its architecture is supranational rather than transnational or postnational. It is like a thin roof resting on the separate and differently-shaped columns of national citizenships. This lack of a transnational dimension in the construction of Union citizenship becomes especially glaring with regard to the possibilities of combining several citizenships of member states of the Union.

Several members, among them Germany, Austria and Luxembourg still have a policy of strict avoidance of multiple citizenship resulting from naturalizations. As I have explained above, effective avoidance requires cooperation between both sending and receiving states. For this reason it is today more difficult to become a dual citizen of Germany and Austria than, for example, a dual citizen of Germany and Turkey.

One could therefore assume that a policy of prohibiting dual citizenship between member states would be seen as unreasonable and opposed to the spirit of European integration. Yet, for the time being, the dogma of state sovereignty in determining nationality remains unchallenged.

There are three kinds of effects: First, the way in which Union citizenship was introduced has blocked a further improvement of denizenship for immigrants.

One might have expected that in countries like France, Germany or Austria Union citizenship would break down constitutional barriers that had excluded foreign immigrants and even native-born foreigners from local voting rights or access to the civil service.

However, the constitutional amendments which became necessary with the Maastricht treaty and which overruled previous definitions of these rights as the exclusive privilege of national citizens [15] reaffirmed the strict linkage between national and EU-citizenship.

In contrast with enhanced denizenship, which derives immigrants' rights from their residence, these decisions emphasized that such rights were based on formal citizenship. This is why Union citizens can enjoy them even without a prolonged period of residence whereas foreign citizens born on the country remain excluded.

Yet this move stripped the traditional conception of rational arguments that had been offered in its support. Making birth in the territory, or common descent, shared history and culture the defining criteria of nationhood has been defended on the grounds that people who share such characteristics are more likely to feel mutual obligations of solidarity and to acquire the knowledge necessary for participating in national political decisions or for exercising a public office.

Being a national of another member state of the Union in no way indicates these qualifications for citizenship. If citizens have to be well-informed about their society and committed to its common good, then recent immigrants from other states of the Union hardly qualify better than long-term resident aliens from third countries.

The rational solution would have been to give resident third country aliens and foreign Union citizens equal rights in these respects and to narrow the areas where national citizenship remains an essential condition to the national franchise and to sensitive areas of national security or high public offices.

Secondly, the existing diversity and inequality of rights of denizenship between the member states has been further highlighted by adding unequal access to Union citizenship.European Citizenship The Citizenship of the Union Citizenship and Identity Glossary Chronology Biographies Links.

Citizenship and the european union essay

Pioneers of European Unity Webquest: Jean Monnet's lifeand European History Quiz on European Union history. Links - European Values . As a consequence of citizenship of the European Union, when in a non-EU country EU citizens whose country maintains no diplomatic mission there, have the right to consular protection and assistance from a diplomatic mission of any other EU country present in the non-EU country.

PERMANENT EUROPEAN UNION CITIZENSHIP EU citizens elect the European Parliament and participate in its work, thus exercising treaty rights, enhancing Union democracy, and reinforcing its citizenship. Advantages and Disadvantages of the European Union. OccupyTheory.

on 9 October, at European countries have come together to form the EU or European Union. It is a political and economic partnership between 27 countries in the continent where certain decisions are negotiated through intergovernmental and supranational independent.

Abstract: The aim of this article is to present a legal analysis of the concept of citizenship of the EU. This concept was considered by some to be embryonic in the original Community Treaties, but was first expressly incorporated into the Treaties by the Treaty on European Union, signed at Maastricht on 7 .

European Union citizenship deals with a number of aspects in relation to citizens of the European Union such as social, civil and political aspects which will be discussed through the case-law of the Court of Justice later on in this essay.

Citizenship of the European Union. Registration with the company PASSPORTES