He replaced the Roman republic with an effective monarchy and during his long reign brought peace and stability.
Legitimacy[ edit ] This article is about legitimate Roman emperors. For other individuals claiming the title of Emperor, see List of Roman usurpers. The emperors listed in this article are those generally agreed to have been 'legitimate' emperors, and who appear in published regnal lists.
In Augustus' original formulation, the princeps was selected by either the Senate or "the people" of Rome, but quite quickly the legions became an acknowledged stand-in for "the people.
The coercion that frequently resulted was implied in this formulation.
Furthermore, a sitting emperor was empowered to name a successor and take him on as apprentice in government and in that case the Senate had no role to play, although it sometimes did when a successor lacked the power to inhibit bids by rival claimants.
By the medieval or "Byzantine" period, the very definition of the Senate became vague as well, adding to the complication. Many of the 'legitimate' emperors listed here acceded to the position by usurpation, and many 'illegitimate' claimants had a legitimate claim to the position. Any individual who undisputedly ruled the whole Empire, at some point, is a 'legitimate emperor' 1.
Any individual who was nominated as heir or co-emperor by a legitimate emperor 1and who succeeded to rule in his own right, is a legitimate emperor 2. Where there were multiple claimants, and none were legitimate heirs, the claimant accepted by the Roman Senate as emperor is the legitimate emperor 3at least during the Principate.
So for instance, Aurelianthough acceding to the throne by usurpation, was the sole and undisputed monarch between — AD, and thus was a legitimate emperor. Gallienus, though not in control of the whole Empire, and plagued by other claimants, was the legitimate heir of the legitimate emperor Valerian.
Claudius Gothicusthough acceding illegally, and not in control of the whole Empire, was the only claimant accepted by the Senate, and thus, for his reign, was the legitimate emperor. Equally, during the Year of the Four Emperorsall claimants, though not undisputed, were at some point accepted by the Senate and are thus included; conversely, during the Year of the Five Emperors neither Pescennius Niger nor Clodius Albinus were accepted by the Senate, and are thus not included.
There are a few examples where individuals were made co-emperor, but never wielded power in their own right typically the child of an emperor ; these emperors are legitimate, but are not included in regnal lists, and in this article are listed together with the 'senior' emperor.
Emperors after [ edit ] Afterthe list of emperors in the East is based on the same general criteria, with the exception that the emperor only had to be in undisputed control of the Eastern part of the empire, or be the legitimate heir of the Eastern emperor. The situation in the West is more complex.
Throughout the final years of the Western Empire — the Eastern emperor was considered the senior emperor, and a Western emperor was only legitimate if recognized as such by the Eastern emperor. Furthermore, after the Western emperor ceased to be a relevant figure and there was sometimes no claimant at all.
For the sake of historical completeness, all Western Emperors after are included in this list, even if they were not recognized by the Eastern Empire;  some of these technically illegitimate emperors are included in regnal lists, while others are not.
For instance, Romulus Augustulus was technically a usurper who ruled only the Italian peninsula and was never legally recognized. However, he was traditionally considered the "last Roman Emperor" by 18th and 19th century western scholars and his overthrow by Odoacer used as the marking point between historical epochs, and as such he is usually included in regnal lists.
However, modern scholarship has confirmed that Romulus Augustulus' predecessor, Julius Nepos continued to rule as emperor in the other Western holdings and as a figurehead for Odoacer's rule in Italy until Nepos' death in Since the question of what constitutes an emperor can be ambiguous, and dating the "fall of the Western Empire" arbitrary, this list includes details of both figures.The great modern biography of Augustus, founder of the Roman Empire.
Born to a plebeian family in 63 BC, Octavian was a young solder training abroad when he heard news of Julius Caesar's brutal assassination - and discovered that he was the dictator's sole political heir. The first and one of the greatest Roman emperors, Augustus Caesar (and his reign of 40 years) embodied the transition of the ancient Roman state from a fractured Republic to a continent-dominating Empire – guided by his impressive political intellect and effective administration.
And like many an.
Augustus (Latin: Imperator Caesar Divi filius Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD His status as the founder of the Roman Principate has consolidated an enduring legacy as one of the most effective and controversial leaders in Successor: Tiberius.
The great modern biography of Augustus, founder of the Roman EmpireBorn to a plebeian family in 63 BC, Octavian was a young solder training abroad when he heard news of Julius Caesar's brutal assassination - and discovered that he was the dictator's sole political heir.
With the opportunism and instinct for propaganda that were to characterize his rule, Octavian rallied huge financial. List of Roman emperors.
Jump to navigation Jump to search Augustus IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS: September 23, 63 BC, Rome, Theodosius I was the last person to rule both halves of the Roman Empire, splitting it between his sons Arcadius and .
In 8 B.C. Augustus had the Roman month of Sextilius renamed after himself—as his great-uncle and predecessor Julius Caesar had done with July. Augustus Caesar died in A.D.
14, his empire.